W. A. LANDMAN AS PEDAGOGUE: A study in fundamental pedagogics

Author
Lemmer, Catharina J.

Translation IN PROGRESS from: Lemmer, Catharina J.: W. A. Landman as pedagogiker: 'n Studie in die fundamentele pedagogiek. Unpublished D. Ed. dissertation, University of South Africa, Pretoria, 1987. Not yet translated: chapters 1, 6, 8, 9, appendices 1, 2, bibliography. Translated items are organized to stand on their own as independent documents. Chapter 4 edited 24 November 2013.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 PREPARATORY WORK 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 THEME ANALYSIS 1.2.1 W. A. Landman 1.2.1.1 Curriculum Vitae 1.2.1.2 Pedagogue 1.2.1.2.1 The essences of being a pedagogue 1.2.1.3 Fundamental pedagogics 1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF METHODS OF INVESTIGATION IN THE PRESENT STUDY 1.3.1 Text study 1.3.2 The texts consulted 1.3.2.1 Landman’s texts 1.3.2.2 Commentary on Landman’s work Written commentary Conversations with authoritative persons who know Landman 1.3.3 The phenomenological method 1.3.4 Other possible ways of approach to the present study 1.4 THE CONTEXT OF THE STUDY 1.4.1 What is meant by context 1.4.2 Striving for objectivity 1.4.3 Critical-evaluative approach 1.4.4 Terminology perspective 1.4.5 Caricaturisms 1.5 Motivations of the present research 1.5.1 Curriculum Vitae motivation 1.5.1.1 The significance of philosophy of life for practicing pedagogics 1.5.1.2 As far as philosophy of life content is concerned, the following are evident and explicated 1.5.1.3 A valuable contribution is made by developing the phenomenological method 1.5.1.4 Regarding application of categories in pedagogics, the following contributions are made 1.5.1.5 Regarding essence-viewing in education, the following insights are contributed 1.5.1.6 The following contributions are made to the development of research methodology 1.5.2 Honorary awards motivation 1.5.2.1 SAVBO 1.5.2.2 Transvaal Education honorary award 1.5.2.3 Stalprize for Education 1.6 ADDITIONAL PROGRAM ANNOUNCEMENTS

CHAPTER 2 THE DEVELOPMENT OF LANDMAN’S THOUGHT REGARDING A THEORY (PHILOSOPHY) OF EDUCATION 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2 INTRODUCTION TO FUNDAMENTAL PEDAGOGICS (IFP) 2.2.1 An overview of the terrain of fundamental pedagogics 2.3 MODES OF THINKING IN PEDAGOGICS (DO) 2.3.1 Modes of thinking for designing a fundamental pedagogics 2.3.1.1 Phenomenological thinking is categorical thinking 2.4 PEDAGOGICS AS A SCIENCE OF EDUCATION AND DOCTRINES FOR EDUCATING: A TEXT FOR BEGINNERS (OOB) 2.4.1 The fundamental pedagogical structures 2.4.2 The pedagogical relationship structures 2.4.2.1 The pedagogical relationship of trust 2.4.2.2 The pedagogical relationship of understanding (knowing) 2.4.2.3 The pedagogical relationship of authority 2.5 FUNDAMENTAL PEDAGOGICS AND THE REALITY OF EDUCATING (FPOW) 2.5.1 The reality of educating as point of departure 2.5.2 Steps of thinking for verifying the essence-status of essences 2.5.2.1 Free variation as thinking away 2.5.2.2 Free variation as acting away 2.5.2.3 Separating the essentials and the non-essentials 2.5.2.4 Stating contradictions 2.5.2.5 Asking the hermeneutic question 2.5.2.6 Investigating naming the essence 2.5.2.7 Determining the categorical status of the essence(s) 2.5.2.8 Acceptability 2.5.2.9 Enlivening educative life 2.6 SUMMARY AND SECOND STATED PROBLEM

CHAPTER 3 THE DEVELOPMENT OF LANDMAN’S THOUGHT REGARDING THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF FUNDAMENTAL PEDAGOGICS 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.2 THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PEDAGOGICAL 3.2.1 Post-scientific view of real essences and the practice of educating 3.3 FUNDAMENTAL PEDAGOGICAL ESSENCES: THEIR APPEARANCE, ACTUALIZATION AND GIVING THEM CONTENT (FPE) 3.3.1 Preconditions for the meaningful improvement of practice 3.3.1.1 Co-existentiality 3.3.1.2 Co-essentiality 3.3.1.3 Overcoming essence blindness 3.3.1.4 Enlivenment 3.3.1.5 Actualizing 3.4 FUNDAMENTAL PEDAGOGICS AND TEACHING PRACTICE (FPOP) 3.4.1 The reality of educating is delimited to teaching practice 3.4.2 The coherencies among fundamental pedagogical essences and lesson structure activities 3.5 FUNDAMENTAL PEDAGOGICS, MODES OF LEARNING AND SUBJECT MATTER TEACHING (FLV) 3.5.1 Coherencies among fundamental pedagogical and psychopedagogical essences 3.6 INTRODUCTION TO THE PRACTICE OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH (IONP) 3.6.1 The significance of fundamental pedagogics for designing educational research programs 3.7 FUNDAMENTAL PEDAGOGICS AND CURRICULUM STUDY (FPK) 3.7.1 The significance of fundamental pedagogics for curriculum-design, -development and –evaluation 3.8 SUMMARY AND STATEMENT OF THIRD PROBLEM

CHAPTER 4 LANDMAN’S CONCEPTION OF PHENOMENOLOGY-APPLIED 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 HUSSERL’S STEPS OF REDUCTION (IFP) 4.3 THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL METHOD (DO) * Dialectic pedagogical thinking * Contradictory pedagogical thinking * Hermeneutic pedagogical thinking 4.4 PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE PERMISSIBILITY OF THE UNVEILING ACTIVITIES ALONG WITH THEIR SCIENTIFIC NECESSITY (FPOW) 4.4.1 A phenomenological method 4.4.1.1 Philosophy of life study 4.4.1.2 Thinking away 4.4.1.3 Acting away 4.4.1.4 Separating 4.4.1.5 Contradictions 4.4.1.6 The hermeneutic question 4.4.1.7 Naming 4.4.1.8 Categorical status 4.4.1.9 Enlivenment 4.4.2 The dialectic method 4.4.2.1 Hegel’s dialectic 4.4.2.2 Kirkegaard’s dialectic 4.4.2.3 Actualization moments as proposed by Landman 4.5 METHODOLOGICAL ACTS THAT HAVE SIGNIFICANCE FOR DISCLOSING AND REALIZING ESSENCES (FPOP) 4.5.1 Reduction of everydayness 4.5.2 Reduction of essence blindness 4.5.2.1 Reduction of lack of light 4.5.2.2 Reduction of general [idle] talk 4.5.2.3 Reduction of superficial curiosity 4.5.2.4 Reduction of ambiguity 4.5.2.5 Reduction of negativity 4.5.2.6 Reducing naïve prejudice (being biased) 4.5.2.7 Reducing lack of vigilance 4.5.3 Reducing the –ism “shroud” 4.6 REINTERPRETATION OF THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ACTS OF UNVEILING (FLV) 4.6.1 With which steps of verification can the phenomenological investigation begin? 4.6.2 How can the investigation be started in the practice of educating itself? 4.6.3 How can there be assurance that these essences, having thus far withstood two verifications, will appear so clearly that further acts with them can be fostered? 4.6.4 How can it be determined if the essences that now appear clearly perhaps ate not invalid but that their opposites are? 4.6.5 In which ways can the meanings and coherencies be determined of those essences that have withstood the verifications carried out thus far? 4.6.6 How can it be determined if a pedagogical way of living or essence, that has thus far maintained its essence status, be meaningfully implemented in an actualizing way? 4.6.7 How can it be determined if the essences have thus far survived the verifications are real lights appearing in the reality of educating? 4.6.8 How can I determine if an essence that tstill has the right to exist after all of the verification steps will be meaningful for me? 4.6.9 How can it be determined if the phenomenological approach is not already obsolete? 4.6.9.1 Heidegger 1969: 90 4.6.9.2 Estes 1970: 150-156 4.6.9.3 Natanson 1970: 1-22 4.6.9.4 Owens 1970: 1-2 4.6.9.5 Vandenberg 1971: 22 4.6.9.6 Wolf 1972: 51-52 4.6.9.7 Hengstenberg 1974: 3-24 4.6.9.8 Imelman 1974: 4-5 4.6.9.9 Flitner 1976: 1-8 4.6.9.10 A phenomenological approach: Some views applicable to the Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria 4.7 PHENOMENOLOGY IN ACTION: THE RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE OF PHENOMENOLOGY (IONP) 4.7.1 Preparation for research 4.7.1.1 The phenomenological reduction 4.7.1.2 The eidetic reduction 4.7.1.2.1 Determining the places of appearance 4.7.1.2.2 Establishing agreements 4.7.1.2.3 Essence verification 4.7.1.3 The transcendental reduction 4.7.2 The attunement to research 4.7.2.1 The phenomenological reduction 4.7.2.1.1 The research function of the phenomenological reduction 4.7.2.1.2 The acts of eliminating of the phenomenological reduction 4.7.2,2 The transcendental reduction 4.7.3 Verification of the research 4.7.4 Interpretation of the research results 4.8 OPERATIONALIZED PHENOMENOLOGY (FPK) 4.9 SUMMARY AND STATEMENT OF FOURTH PROBLEM

CHAPTER 5 THE DEVELOPMENT OF LANDMAN’S USE OF CATEGORIES 5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.2 OBERHOLZER’S CATEGORIES AND CRITERIA SUPPLEMENTED AND ORGANIZED UNDER THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL CATEGORIES FROM WHICH THEY EMANATE (IFP) 5.2.1 Oberholzer’s categories 5.2.1.1 Pedagogical categories emanating from the category of being-in-a-meaningful-world 5.2.1.2 Pedagogical categories emanating from the category of being-with 5.2.1.3 Pedagogical categories emanating from the category of temporality 5.2.1.4 Pedagogical categories emanating from the category of being-someone-oneself 5.2.2 Pedagogical criteria 5.2.2.1 The criterion of safe space or the success of (establishing) affective security (Oberholzer) 5.2.2.2 The criterion of normativity or norm-centricity or ought-to-be or the validity of the demands of propriety (Oberholzer) 5.2.2.3 The criterion of being-someone-oneself or being-human as being-a-person who must do-something- himself (Oberholzer) 5.2.2.4 The pedagogical criterion of adulthood (Landman) 5.3 ADDITIONAL DESCRIPTIONS OF PEDAGOGICAL CATEGORIES AND EXAMPLES OFTHEIR PRACTICAL APPLICATION (DO) 5.3.1 Categories of being-in-a-meaningful-world 5.3.2 Categories of being-with 5.3.3 Categories of temporality 5.3.4 Categories of being-someone-oneself 5.4 THE ONTOLOGICAL-ANTHROPOLOGICAL GROUNDING OF PEDGOGICAL CATEGORIES/CRITERIA (FPOW) 5.5 ETYMOLOGICAL AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CONCEPT “CATEGORY” AND ITS USE IN FUNDAMENTAL PEDAGOGICS (PFP) 5.5.1 Etymological and phenomenological analysis of the concept “category” 5.5.2 The application of categories in fundamental pedagogics 5.6 SUMMARY AND FIFTH STATED PROBLEM

CHAPTER 6 LANDMAN’S VIEW OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF A PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE

CHAPTER 7 LANDMAN’S VIEW OF ESSENCES 7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.2 DESCRIPTIONS INITIALLY USED BY LANDMAN (IFP) 7.3 THE CONCEPT OF ESSENCE APPEARS (OOB) 7.4 SEPARATING THE ESSENTIALS FROM THE NON- ESSENTIALS (FPOW) 7.5 A REAL ESSENCE MUST HAVE CATEGORICAL STATUS (PFP) 7.6 FOR LANDMAN OVERCOMING ESSENCE-BLINDNESS IS A NECESSARY SCIENTIFIC CRITERION (FPE) 7.7 IN HIS PEDAGOGICAL THINKING LANDMAN EMPHASIZES BRINGING COHERENCIES (RELATIONSHIPS) TO LIGHT 7.8 PEDAGOGICALLY MEANINGFUL WAYS OF LIVING (PFOP) 7.8.1 Fundamental pedagogical structures 7.8.2 Fundamental pedagogical structures and essences 7.8.2.1 Pedagogical relationship structures 7.8.2.2 Pedagogical sequence structures 7.8.2.3 Pedagogical activity structures 7.8.2.4 Pedagogical aim structures 7.8.3 Meaningful ways of living are fundamental for the child to become a proper adult 7.9 THE USE OF RESEARCH PROCEDURES IN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH FOR DISCLOSING, REALIZING AND VERIFYING ESSENCES (IONP) 7.10 “NEW” ESSENCES OF THE PEDAGOGICAL SITUATION DISCLOSED BY LANDMAN 7.10.1 Engagement 7.10.2 Periodic breaking away 7.19.3 Philosophy of life structure 7.10.4 Pedagogical activity structures 7.10.5 Pedagogical aim structures 7.11 SUMMARY AND STATEMENT OF SEVENTH PROBLEM REFERENCES

CHAPTER 8 LANDMAN’S CONTRIBUTION TO FUNDAMENTAL PEDAGOGICS VIA HIS GRADUATE STUDENTS

CHAPTER 9 EVALUATIVE COMENTARY ON LANDMAN’S PEDAGOGICAL THINKING

CHAPTER 10 CONCLUDING SUMMARY REMARKS

APPENDIX 1: LANDMAN’S PARTICIPATION IN THE ORGANIZED TEACHING PROFESSION

APPENDIX 2: PUBLICATIONS OF W. A. LANDMAN

BIBLIOGRAPHY